1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 13

1.1 Global production to 2025 15

1.2 Main producers and global production capacities 16

1.2.1 Producers 16

1.2.2 By bioplastic type 17

1.2.3 By region 18

1.3 Global demand for bioplastics in 2019, by market 20

1.4 Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the bioplastics market and future demand 23

1.5 Challenges for the bioplastics market 23

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 25

3 THE GLOBAL PLASTICS MARKET 26

3.1 Global production 26

3.2 The importance of plastic 26

3.3 Issues with plastics use 27

4 INTRODUCTION 28

4.1 Bio-based or renewable plastics 28

4.1.1 Drop-in bio-based plastics 28

4.1.2 Novel bio-based plastics 29

4.2 Biodegradable and compostable plastics 30

4.2.1 Biodegradability 30

4.2.2 Compostability 31

4.3 Advantages and disadvantages 31

5 BIO-BASED POLYMER TYPES AND MARKET PROSPECTS 33

5.1 SYNTHETIC BIO-BASED POLYMERS 35

5.1.1 Polylactic acid (Bio-PLA) 35

5.1.1.1 Market analysis 35

5.1.1.2 Producers 37

5.1.2 Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) 39

5.1.2.1 Market analysis 39

5.1.2.2 Producers 39

5.1.3 Polytrimethylene terephthalate (Bio-PTT) 41

5.1.3.1 Market analysis 41

5.1.3.2 Producers 41

5.1.4 Polyethylene furanoate (Bio-PEF) 42

5.1.4.1 Market analysis 42

5.1.4.2 Comparative properties to PET 43

5.1.4.3 Producers 43

5.1.5 Polyamides (Bio-PA) 45

5.1.5.1 Market analysis 45

5.1.5.2 Producers 46

5.1.6 Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (Bio-PBAT) 47

5.1.6.1 Market analysis 47

5.1.6.2 Producers 47

5.1.7 Polybutylene succinate (PBS) and copolymers 49

5.1.7.1 Market analysis 49

5.1.7.2 Producers 49

5.1.8 Polyethylene (Bio-PE) 50

5.1.8.1 Market analysis 50

5.1.8.2 Producers 50

5.1.9 Polypropylene (Bio-PP) 51

5.1.9.1 Market analysis 51

5.1.9.2 Producers 51

5.2 NATURAL BIO-BASED POLYMERS 52

5.2.1 Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) 52

5.2.1.1 Market analysis 52

5.2.1.2 Commercially available PHAs 53

5.2.1.3 Producers 54

5.2.2 Polysaccharides 55

5.2.2.1 Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) 55

5.2.2.2 Cellulose nanocrystals 56

5.2.2.3 Cellulose nanofibers 58

5.2.3 Protein-based bioplastics 61

5.2.3.1 Types, applications and producers 61

5.2.4 Algal and fungal 63

5.2.4.1 Types, applications and producers 63

6 PRODUCTION OF BIOPLASTICS BY REGION 64

6.1 North America 65

6.2 Europe 65

6.3 Asia-Pacific 66

6.4 Latin America 67

7 MARKET SEGMENTATION OF BIOPLASTICS 68

7.1 Packaging 69

7.2 Consumer products 70

7.3 Automotive 71

7.4 Building & construction 71

7.5 Textiles 72

7.6 Electronics 73

7.7 Agriculture and horticulture 74

8 COMPANY PROFILES 76 (146 COMPANY PROFILES)

9 REFERENCES 174

Tables

Table 1. Market drivers and trends for bioplastics. 14

Table 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2025, in 1,000 tons. 15

Table 3. Global production capacities, by producers. 16

Table 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by type, in 1,000 tons. 17

Table 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by region, tons. 18

Table 6. Issues related to the use of plastics. 27

Table 7. Type of biodegradation. 31

Table 8. Advantages and disadvantages of bioplastics compared to conventional plastics. 31

Table 9. Types of Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastics, applications. 33

Table 10. Market leader by Bio-based and/or Biodegradable Plastic types. 34

Table 11. Polylactic acid (PLA) market analysis. 35

Table 12. Lactic acid producers and production capacities. 37

Table 13. PLA producers and production capacities. 37

Table 14. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (Bio-PET) market analysis. 39

Table 15. Bio-based Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) producers. 39

Table 16. Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT) market analysis. 41

Table 17. Production capacities of Polytrimethylene terephthalate (PTT), by leading producers. 41

Table 18. Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) market analysis. 42

Table 19. PED vs. PET. 43

Table 20. FDCA and PEF producers. 43

Table 21. Bio-based polyamides (Bio-PA) market analysis. 45

Table 22. Leading Bio-PA producers production capacities. 46

Table 23. Poly(butylene adipate-co-terephthalate) (PBAT) market analysis. 47

Table 24. Leading PBAT producers, production capacities and brands. 47

Table 25. Bio-PBS market analysis. 49

Table 26. Leading PBS producers and production capacities. 49

Table 27. Bio-based Polyethylene (Bio-PE) market analysis. 50

Table 28. Leading Bio-PE producers. 50

Table 29. Bio-PP market analysis. 51

Table 30. Leading Bio-PP producers and capacities. 51

Table 31. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) market analysis. 52

Table 32. Commercially available PHAs. 53

Table 33. Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) producers. 54

Table 34. Microfibrillated cellulose (MFC) market analysis. 55

Table 35. Leading MFC producers and capacities. 56

Table 36. Cellulose nanocrystals analysis. 56

Table 37: Cellulose nanocrystal production capacities and production process, by producer. 58

Table 38. Cellulose nanofibers market analysis. 58

Table 39. CNF production capacities and production process, by producer. 60

Table 40. Types of protein based-bioplastics, applications and companies. 61

Table 41. Types of algal and fungal based-bioplastics, applications and companies. 63

Table 42. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019-2025, by region, tons. 64

Table 43. Bioplastics producers in North America. 65

Table 44. Bioplastics producers in Europe. 65

Table 45. Bioplastics producers in Asia-Pacific. 66

Table 46. Bioplastics producers in Latin America. 67

Table 47. Lactips plastic pellets. 133

Figures

Figure 1. Total global production capacities for bioplastics, all types, 000 tons. 14

Figure 2. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2018-2025, in 1,000 tons. 15

Figure 3. Global production capacities of bioplastics in 2019, by type. 18

Figure 4. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2019. 19

Figure 5. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2025. 19

Figure 6. Current and future applications of bioplastics. 20

Figure 7. Global demand for bioplastics by end user market, 2019. 21

Figure 8. Global production capacities for bioplastics by end user market 2019-2025, tons. 22

Figure 9. Challenges for the bioplastics market. 23

Figure 10. Global plastics production 1950-2018, millions of tons. 26

Figure 11. Coca-Cola PlantBottleĀ®. 29

Figure 12. Interrelationship between conventional, bio-based and biodegradable plastics. 30

Figure 13. Production capacities of Polyethylene furanoate (PEF) to 2025. 44

Figure 14. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2019. 64

Figure 15. Global production capacities of bioplastics 2025. 65

Figure 16. Global production capacities for bioplastics by end user market 2019, tons. 68

Figure 17. Global production capacities for bioplastics by end user market 2025, in 1,000 tons. 69

Figure 18. PHA bioplastics products. 69

Figure 19. Global production capacities for bioplastics in packaging 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 70

Figure 20. Global production capacities for bioplastics in consumer products 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 71

Figure 21. Global production capacities for bioplastics automotive 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 71

Figure 22. Global production capacities for bioplastics in building and construction 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 72

Figure 23. Global production capacities for bioplastics in textiles 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 73

Figure 24. Global production capacities for bioplastics in electronics 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 74

Figure 25. Biodegradable mulch films. 74

Figure 26. Global production capacities for bioplastics in agriculture 2019-2025, in 1,000 tons. 75

Figure 27. Bio-PA rear bumper stay. 87

Figure 28. PHA production process. 117

Figure 29. IPA synthesis method. 140

Figure 30. Compostable water pod. 146

Figure 31. Sulzer equipment for PLA polymerization processing. 160

Figure 32. Teijin bioplastic film for door handles. 164

Figure 33. Corbion FDCA production process. 169