1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 25

1.1 The evolution of electronics 26

1.1.1 The wearables revolution 27

1.1.2 Wearable market leaders 29

1.1.3 Flexible, stretchable, thin, and large-area form factors 29

1.2 What are flexible and stretchable electronics? 30

1.2.1 From rigid to flexible and stretchable 31

1.2.2 Organic and printed electronics 32

1.2.3 New conductive materials 33

1.2.4 Foldable smartphones and tablets 36

1.3 Growth in flexible and stretchable electronics market 39

1.3.1 Recent growth in Printed, flexible and stretchable products 39

1.3.2 Future growth 39

1.3.3 Nanotechnology as a market driver 39

1.3.4 Growth in remote health monitoring and diagnostics 40

2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 42

3 WEARABLE ELECTRONICS 43

3.1 MARKET DRIVERS AND TRENDS 43

3.2 APPLICATIONS 46

3.2.1 Smartwatches 47

3.2.1.1 Main smart watch producers and products 48

3.2.2 Sports and fitness trackers 49

3.2.2.1 Products 50

3.2.3 Sleep trackers and wearable monitors 52

3.2.3.1 Products 53

3.2.4 Smart glasses and head-mounted displays (VR, AR, MR, vision loss and eye trackers) 54

3.2.4.1 Products 55

3.2.5 Military 59

3.2.6 Industrial and workplace monitoring 59

3.2.7 Flexible and stretchable electronics in wearables 60

3.2.8 Stretchable artificial skin 63

3.3 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE 64

3.4 MARKET CHALLENGES 69

3.5 COMPANY PROFILES 70 (60 company profiles)

4 MEDICAL AND HEALTHCARE WEARABLES 107

4.1 MARKET DRIVERS 107

4.2 CURRENT STATE OF THE ART 110

4.2.1 Monitoring solutions to track COVID-19 symptoms 114

4.2.1.1 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring 114

4.3 APPLICATIONS 115

4.3.1 Companies and products 116

4.3.2 Electronic skin patches 121

4.3.3 Nanomaterials-based devices 122

4.3.4 Wearable health alert and monitoring devices 125

4.3.5 Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) 126

4.3.5.1 Minimally-invasive CGM sensors 127

4.3.5.2 Non-invasive CGM sensors 129

4.3.5.3 Companies and products 131

4.3.6 Cardiovascular 134

4.3.6.1 ECG sensors 135

4.3.6.2 PPG sensors 137

4.3.7 Pregnancy and newborn monitoring 138

4.3.8 Wearable temperature monitoring 139

4.3.9 Hydration sensors 141

4.3.10 Wearable sweat sensors (medical and sports) 142

4.3.10.1 Products 145

4.3.11 Wearable drug delivery 145

4.3.12 Cosmetics patches 147

4.3.13 Smart footwear 149

4.3.14 Smart contact lenses 150

4.3.15 Smart wound care 150

4.3.16 Wearable exoskeletons 153

4.3.17 Medical hearables 155

4.4 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE 157

4.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 159

4.6 COMPANY PROFILES 161 (134 company profiles)

5 ELECTRONIC TEXTILES (E-TEXTILES) AND SMART TEXTILES 246

5.1 MARKET DRIVERS 246

5.2 MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS 250

5.2.1 Conductive and stretchable yarns 251

5.2.2 Conductive polymers 252

5.2.2.1 PDMS 253

5.2.2.2 PEDOT: PSS 254

5.2.3 Conductive coatings 255

5.2.4 Conductive inks 256

5.2.5 Nanomaterials 258

5.2.5.1 Nanocoatings in smart textiles 260

5.2.5.2 Graphene 263

5.2.5.3 Nanofibers 264

5.2.5.4 Carbon nanotubes 266

5.2.6 Phase change materials 268

5.2.6.1 Temperature controlled fabrics 269

5.3 APPLICATIONS, MARKETS AND PRODUCTS 270

5.3.1 Smart clothing products 270

5.3.2 Temperature monitoring and regulation 273

5.3.2.1 Heated clothing 273

5.3.3 Stretchable E-fabrics 277

5.3.4 Therapeutic products 277

5.3.5 Sport & fitness 278

5.3.6 Smart footwear 279

5.3.7 Military/Defence 280

5.3.8 Medical and healthcare 282

5.3.8.1 Wearable health monitoring 282

5.3.8.1.1 Companies and products 287

5.3.8.2 Monitoring solutions to track COVID-19 symptoms 293

5.3.8.3 Temperature and respiratory rate monitoring 293

5.3.8.4 Pregnancy and newborn monitoring 293

5.3.8.5 Biometric monitoring 295

5.3.8.6 ECG sensors 295

5.3.8.7 Smart wound care 297

5.3.9 Industrial and workplace monitoring 300

5.3.10 Flexible and wearable display advertising 301

5.3.11 Textile-based lighting 301

5.3.11.1 OLEDs 301

5.3.12 Antimicrobial textiles 302

5.3.12.1 Nanosilver 302

5.3.12.2 Zinc oxide 303

5.3.12.3 Chitosan 305

5.3.13 Smart diapers 306

5.3.14 Protective clothing 307

5.3.15 Automotive interiors 312

5.3.16 Powering E-textiles 313

5.3.16.1 Batteries 313

5.3.16.2 Supercapacitors 315

5.3.16.3 Energy harvesting 315

5.3.16.3.1 Photovoltaic solar textiles 315

5.3.16.3.2 Energy harvesting nanogenerators 317

5.3.16.2.3.1 TENGs 317

5.3.16.2.3.2 PENGs 318

5.3.16.2.3 Radio frequency (RF) energy harvesting 318

5.4 GLOBAL MARKET SIZE 319

5.5 MARKET CHALLENGES 321

5.6 COMPANY PROFILES 323 (101 company profiles)

6 REFERENCES 398

Tables

Table 1. Types of wearable devices and applications. 28

Table 2. Wearable market leaders by market segment. 29

Table 3. Advanced materials for Printed, flexible and stretchable sensors and Electronics-Advantages and disadvantages. 33

Table 4. Sheet resistance (RS) and transparency (T) values for transparent conductive oxides and alternative materials for transparent conductive electrodes (TCE). 34

Table 5. Foldable smartphones and tablets, on or near market. 36

Table 6. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable electronics for wearables and IoT. 43

Table 7. Main smart watch producers and products. 48

Table 8. Wearable sensors for sports performance. 50

Table 9. Wearable sensor products for monitoring sport performance. 51

Table 10. Wearable sleep tracker products. 53

Table 11. Smart glasses companies and products. 55

Table 12.Wearable electronics applications in the military. 59

Table 13. Applications in printed, flexible and stretchable electronics, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 61

Table 14. Global market for wearable electronics, 2015-2027, by product type, billions $. 66

Table 15.Market challenges in wearable electronics and IoT. 69

Table 16. Market drivers for printed, flexible and stretchable medical and healthcare sensors and wearables. 107

Table 17. Examples of wearable medical device products. 111

Table 18. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis. 114

Table 19. Applications in flexible and stretchable health monitors, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 123

Table 20. Wearable bio-signal monitoring devices. 125

Table 21. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection-advantages and disadvantages. 127

Table 22. Commercial devices for non-invasive glucose monitoring not released or withdrawn from market. 130

Table 23. Minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose monitoring products. 131

Table 24. Companies developing wearable swear sensors. 145

Table 25. Wearable drug delivery companies and products. 146

Table 26. Companies and products, cosmetics and drug delivery patches. 148

Table 27.Companies and products in smart footwear. 149

Table 28.Companies and products in smart contact lenses. 150

Table 29. Companies and products in smart wound care. 152

Table 30. Companies developing wearable exoskeletons. 153

Table 31. Companies and products in hearables. 155

Table 32. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product. 158

Table 33. Market challenges in medical and healthcare sensors and wearables. 159

Table 34. Market drivers for printed, flexible, stretchable and organic electronic textiles. 246

Table 35. Types of smart textiles. 248

Table 36. Examples of smart textile products. 249

Table 37. Types of smart textiles. 250

Table 38. Examples of smart textile products. 250

Table 39. Types of flexible conductive polymers, properties and applications. 254

Table 40. Typical conductive ink formulation. 256

Table 41. Comparative properties of conductive inks. 257

Table 42. Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 258

Table 43. Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications. 260

Table 44. Applications and benefits of graphene in textiles and apparel. 263

Table 45. Properties of CNTs and comparable materials. 266

Table 46. Applications and markets for e-textiles. 270

Table 47. Commercially available smart clothing products. 270

Table 48. Electronic textiles products. 272

Table 49. Heated jacket and clothing products. 275

Table 50. Examples of materials used in flexible heaters and applications. 276

Table 51.Companies and products in smart footwear. 280

Table 52.Wearable electronics applications in the military. 281

Table 53. Examples of wearable medical device products. 284

Table 54. Medical wearable companies applying products to COVID-19 monitoring and analysis. 293

Table 55. Companies and products in smart wound care. 299

Table 56. Antibacterial effects of ZnO NPs in different bacterial species. 304

Table 57. Companies developing smart diaper products. 306

Table 58: Applications in textiles, by advanced materials type and benefits thereof. 308

Table 59: Nanocoatings applied in the textiles industry-type of coating, nanomaterials utilized, benefits and applications. 309

Table 60. Comparison of prototype batteries (flexible, textile, and other) in terms of area-specific performance. 314

Table 61. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing market 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD). 319

Table 62. Market challenges in E-textiles. 321

Figures

Figure 1. Evolution of electronics. 27

Figure 2. Wove Band. 31

Figure 3. Wearable graphene medical sensor. 32

Figure 4. Applications timeline for organic and printed electronics. 33

Figure 5. Xiaomi MIX Flex. 38

Figure 6. Baby Monitor. 41

Figure 7. Wearable health monitor incorporating graphene photodetectors. 41

Figure 8. Applications of wearable flexible sensors worn on various body parts. 47

Figure 9. Wearable bio-fluid monitoring system for monitoring of hydration. 50

Figure 10. Beddr SleepTuner. 53

Figure 11. Vuzix Blade. 54

Figure 12. NReal Light MR smart glasses. 55

Figure 13. Wearable gas sensor. 60

Figure 14.Stretchable transistor. 61

Figure 15. Artificial skin prototype for gesture recognition. 63

Figure 16. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by product type, billions US$. 65

Figure 17. Global market for hearables, 2017-2027, by product type, billions $. 67

Figure 18. Global market for wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type 68

Figure 19.Connected human body and product examples. 111

Figure 20. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products. 116

Figure 21. Smart e-skin system comprising health-monitoring sensors, displays, and ultra flexible PLEDs. 122

Figure 22.Graphene medical patch. 123

Figure 23. Graphene-based E-skin patch. 123

Figure 24. Technologies for minimally-invasive and non-invasive glucose detection. 126

Figure 25. Schematic of non-invasive CGM sensor. 130

Figure 26. Adhesive wearable CGM sensor. 131

Figure 27. VitalPatch. 135

Figure 28. Wearable ECG-textile. 135

Figure 29. Wearable ECG recorder. 136

Figure 30. Nexkin™. 137

Figure 31. Bloomlife. 139

Figure 32. Enfucell wearable temperature tag. 140

Figure 33. TempTraQ wearable wireless thermometer. 141

Figure 34. Nanowire skin hydration patch. 141

Figure 35. NIX sensors. 142

Figure 36. Wearable sweat sensor. 142

Figure 37. Wearable sweat sensor. 143

Figure 38. Gatorade's GX Sweat Patch. 144

Figure 39. Sweat sensor incorporated into face mask. 144

Figure 40. Lab-on-Skin™. 145

Figure 41. D-mine Pump. 146

Figure 42.My UV Patch. 147

Figure 43. Overview layers of L'Oreal skin patch. 148

Figure 44. Digitsole Smartshoe. 149

Figure 45. Schematic of smart wound dressing. 151

Figure 46. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 152

Figure 47. Honda Walking Assist. 153

Figure 48. Nuheara IQbuds² Max. 155

Figure 49. Global medical and healthcare wearables market, 2017-2027, billions $, by product. 157

Figure 50. Global market for medical and healthcare sensors and wearables, 2015-2027, by market share of product type. 159

Figure 51. Conductive yarns. 251

Figure 52. Conductive yarns. 252

Figure 53. SEM image of cotton fibers with PEDOT:PSS coating. 253

Figure 54. Applications of graphene in smart textiles and apparel. 264

Figure 55. PCM cooling vest. 270

Figure 56. EXO2 Stormwalker 2 Heated Jacket. 273

Figure 57. Flexible polymer-based heated glove, sock and slipper. 274

Figure 58. ThermaCell Rechargeable Heated Insoles. 275

Figure 59. Myant sleeve tracks biochemical indicators in sweat. 277

Figure 60. Flexible polymer-based therapeutic products. 278

Figure 61. iStimUweaR . 279

Figure 62. Digitsole Smartshoe. 280

Figure 63. Wearable medical technology. 283

Figure 64.Connected human body and product examples. 284

Figure 65. Companies and products in wearable health monitoring and rehabilitation devices and products. 287

Figure 66. Bloomlife. 295

Figure 67. VitalPatch. 295

Figure 68. Wearable ECG-textile. 296

Figure 69. Wearable ECG recorder. 297

Figure 70. Nexkin™. 297

Figure 71. Schematic of smart wound dressing. 298

Figure 72. REPAIR electronic patch concept. Image courtesy of the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine. 299

Figure 73. Wearable gas sensor. 300

Figure 74. Basketball referee Royole fully flexible display. 301

Figure 75: Anti-bacterial sol-gel nanoparticle silver coating. 303

Figure 76. Schematic of antibacterial activity of ZnO NPs. 304

Figure 77/ ABENA Nova smart diaper. 306

Figure 78: Omniphobic-coated fabric. 308

Figure 79. Textile-based car seat heaters. 313

Figure 80. Micro-scale energy scavenging techniques. 315

Figure 81. Schematic illustration of the fabrication concept for textile-based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) made by sewing textile electrodes onto cloth or paper. 316

Figure 82 . 3D print piezoelectric material. 317

Figure 83. Global electronic textiles and smart clothing 2017-2030, revenues (billions USD).Source: Future Markets. 320

Figure 84. Global market for electronics and smart textiles, 2017-2027, by market share of product type. 321

Figure 85. Graphene dress. The dress changes colour in sync with the wearer's breathing. 337

Figure 86. Descante Solar Thermo insulated jacket. 338

Figure 87. G+ Graphene Aero Jersey. 340

Figure 88. HiFlex strain/pressure sensor. 347

Figure 89. Electroskin integration schematic. 368

Figure 90. Smardii smart diaper. 383

Figure 91. Teslasuit. 387