1. The impact of Covid-19 on Saudi Arabia
1.1 Overview
1.2 Covid-19 in Saudi Arabia
1.3 Economic outlook
1.4 Impact of Covid-19 on government expenditure
1.5 Impact of Covid-19 on Vision 2030
1.6 Impact of Covid-19 on project spending

2. Government
2.1 Overview
2.2 Domestic politics
2.3 Regional diplomacy and conflict
2.4 International relations
2.5 Saudi Arabia and global oil markets
2.6 Vision 2030
2.6.1 Social reforms

3. Economy
3.1. Overview
3.2 GDP
3.3 Inflation
3.4 Oil production
3.5 Government finances
3.6 Trade flows
3.7 Banking and monetary policy
3.8 Stock market
3.9 Foreign direct investment
3.10 Labour market
3.11 Economic outlook
3.12 Saudi Aramco privatisation
3.13 The IMF view
3.14 Credit ratings agencies
3.15 Economic forecast

4. Vision 2030
4.1 Overview
4.2 Vision 2030: Progress report
4.3 Vision 2030 themes
4.4 Vision 2030 targets
4.5 National Transformation Programme (NTP)

5. Projects market
5.1 Overview
5.2 Contract awards
5.3 Spending drivers
5.4 Megaprojects
5.5 Outlook
5.6 Leading clients
5.7 Leading contractors

6. PPP in Saudi Arabia
6.1 Overview
6.2 Policy & regulations
6.3 History
6.4 PPP programme and projects

7. Oil and gas
7.1 Overview
7.1.1 Impact of Covid-19
7.1.2 Vision 2030 Targets
7.2 Market structure
7.3 Saudi Aramco
7.4 Upstream Oil
7.5 Gas
7.6 Refining
7.7 Projects Market
7.8 Leading contractors

8. Petrochemicals
8.1 Market overview
8.2 Key Companies
8.3 Projects Market
8.4 Leading Contractors

9. Mining and natural resources
9.1 Market overview
9.1.1 Impact of Covid-19
9.2 Market structure
9.2.1 Saudi Arabian Mining Company (Maaden)
9.3 Investment
9.4 Gold and base metals
9.5 Phosphate
9.6 Aluminium and bauxite
9.7 Industrial minerals
9.8 Exploration
9.9 Vision 2030 targets
9.10 Talent and experience

10. Industry
10.1 Market overview
10.2 Diversification
10.3 Automotive
10.4 Polysilicon
10.5 Cement
10.6 Steel
10.7 Aluminium
10.8 Fertilisers
10.9 Defence
10.10 Projects market

11. Power and renewables
11.1 Overview
11.2 Market structure
11.3 Privatisation
11.4 Supply and demand trends
11.5 Power generation projects
11.6 Efficiency drive
11.7 Transmission and distribution network
11.8 International electrical interconnection
11.9 Leading contractors

12. Water and desalination
12.1 Market overview
12.2 Market structure
12.3 Water demand and supply
12.4 Desalination projects
12.5 Water transportation
12.6 Decommissioning

13. Wastewater
13.1 Market overview
13.2 Market structure
13.3 Wastewater demand
13.4 Wastewater treatment
13.5 Wastewater projects

14. Construction
14.1 Overview
14.2 Projects market
14.3 Contractors and the government
14.4 Public-private Partnership (PPP) projects
14.5 Real estate
14.6 Healthcare
14.7 Education
14.8 Roads

15. Tourism
15.1 Overview
15.2 Vision 2030 and the tourism sector
15.3 Key trends
15.4 Cultural tourism
15.5 Hospitality
15.6 Leisure projects
15.7 Retail projects

16. Rail
16.1 Overview
16.2 Railway masterplan
16.3 Structure of the rail industry
16.4 Opportunities and challenges
16.5 Mainline rail infrastructure
16.6 Metro/light rail transit
16.7 Monorail

17. Aviation
17.1 Market overview
17.2 Market liberalisation
17.3 Airport projects

18. Ports
18.1 Market overview
18.2 Sector drivers
18.3 Major ports
18.4 Projects and investments
18.5 Port-rail links
18.6 Privatisation
18.7 Public-private partnerships
18.8 Vision 2030 targets

19. Doing Business
19.1 Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Saudi Arabia
19.2 Trading with Saudi Arabia
19.3 Doing business with the public sector
19.4 The role of Saudi Aramco IPO and tourism in reforms and privatisation
19.5 Saudi Arabia's Privatisation Push
19.6 Taxation
19.7 Employment law
19.8 Intellectual property
19.9 Enforcing contracts, resolving disputes, and liquidating a business
19.10 New Competition Law, 2019
19.11 New Franchise Law, 2019
Disclaimer

List of Tables
Table 1: Council of Ministers
Table 2: Saudi GDP by economic sector, 2019
Table 3: Government budgets 2020-2021 (SRbn)
Table 4: Vision 2030 goals under the theme 'A Thriving Economy'
Table 5: Phase 1 of the NTP
Table 6: Spending plans by entity under phase 1 of NTP
Table 7: Biggest contracts awarded in 2020
Table 8: Biggest contract awards in Q1 2021
Table 9: Largest projects due for award in 2021-2022
Table 10: Pipeline of PPP projects in Saudi Arabia
Table 11: NCP Mandate for PPP Projects
Table 12: Major active power PPP projects in Saudi Arabia*
Table 13: List of bidders with prices for the 300MW PV solar project at Sakaka
Table 14: List of bidders with prices for category A and B Projects
Table 15: Projects under Round 3 of NREP
Table 16: Water infrastructure investment programme
Table 17: SWPC Contracts between 2019 and 2020
Table 18: Planned IWPs
Table 19: Planned ISTPs
Table 20: Planned IWTPs
Table 21: Planned Railway PPP Projects
Table 22: Saudi Arabia key facts and figures, 2019
Table 23: Saudi Arabia crude oil exports by region, 2019 (%)
Table 24: Fuel price reforms, January 2018
Table 25: Aramco domestic refining joint ventures
Table 26: Aramco overseas refining joint ventures
Table 27: Saudi Arabia major refinery projects
Table 28: Top oil and gas projects in pre-execution phases
Table 29: Selected petrochemicals projects underway
Table 30: Top petrochemical projects planned
Table 31: Saudi Arabia's top petrochemicals sector contractors ($m)
Table 32: Maaden production output in Q1-Q3 2020
Table 33: Geographical sales breakdown between international and domestic sales, SR million
Table 34: Key Saudi mining companies
Table 35: Maaden subsidiaries & joint ventures in Saudi Arabia, December 2019
Table 36: Maaden gold production (ounces), 2016-2019
Table 37: Major gold and copper projects
Table 38: Phosphate projects
Table 39: Aluminium and bauxite projects
Table 40: Selected pre-execution industrial projects in Saudi Arabia
Table 41: Saudi Arabia power and renewables sector key facts, 2020
Table 42: SEC Privatisation - Functions of new unbundled companies
Table 43: Major active thermal power generation plants in Saudi Arabia*
Table 44: Saudi Arabia, major power projects (excluding renewables) under execution by value ($m)
Table 45: Saudi Arabia, major planned power projects (excluding renewables) by value ($m)
Table 46: Repdo renewable energy projects by capacity (MW) and value ($m)
Table 47: List of bidders with prices for the 300MW PV solar project at Sakaka
Table 48: List of bidders with price for the 400MW wind scheme at Dumat al-Jandal
Table 49: Repdo third round projects
Table 50: Saudi Arabia, renewable energy projects ($m) under execution
Table 51: Saudi Arabia, upcoming renewable energy projects ($m)
Table 52: Selected T&D contract awards, 2019-2020
Table 53: Transmission & distribution infrastructure, 2015?2019
Table 54: Number of transmission substations, 2014-2019
Table 55: Saudi Arabia upcoming power transmission projects by value ($m)
Table 56: Technical bidders for the Saudi Arabia-Egypt Interconnection
Table 57: Saudi Arabia leading contractors by value
Table 58: Saudi Arabia water sector key facts
Table 59: Existing IWPPs
Table 60: Planned IWPs
Table 61: Saudi Arabia, total water demand (million cubic meters/year)
Table 62: Saudi Arabia, New SWPC desalination projects
Table 63: Major desalination plants operated by SWCC and other organisations
Table 64: Major SWCC desalination plants under construction
Table 65: Future projects
Table 66: Saudi Arabia, desalination projects in the pre-execution stage ($m)
Table 67: Planned SWCC transmission pipelines
Table 68: Planned ISTPs
Table 69: Cities under NWC's mandate
Table 70: Planned O&M clusters
Table 71: Existing and planned large-scale STPs
Table 72: Existing and projected wastewater flow in Saudi Arabia by region
Table 73: Existing and projected wastewater flow in Saudi Arabia by city
Table 74: Wastewater treatment standards in Saudi Arabia
Table 75: TSE contracts*
Table 76: TSE MoUs

List of Figures
Figure 1: Covid-19 tracker of Mena region
Figure 2: Saudi GDP 2010-2020
Figure 3: GDP by sector, 2019 (% of total)
Figure 4: Saudi inflation, 2010?2020 (% change in average consumer prices)
Figure 5: Saudi crude oil and natural gas production, 2005?2019
Figure 6: Government finances, 2010?2020
Figure 7: Sama assets, 2000?2020 (SRbn)
Figure 8: Government non-oil revenue, 2001?2020 (% of total revenue)
Figure 9: Saudi commercial banks' holdings of government bonds 2000?2020 (SRbn)
Figure 10: Saudi government gross debt, 2000?2020
Figure 11: Saudi trade flows 2009?2019 (SRbn)
Figure 12: Commercial bank assets and deposits, 2010?2020 (SRbn)
Figure 13: Three-month Saudi interbank offered rate, Q1 2010?Q1 2021 (%)
Figure 14: Tadawul performance, 2010?2020
Figure 15: Foreign direct investment, net inflows 2006-2020 ($m)
Figure 16: Saudis in public and private sector jobs, 2005-2019
Figure 17: Non-Saudis in the workforce, 2014-2019
Figure 18: Average price of Opec oil basket, 2008?2019 ($ / barrel)
Figure 19: Saudi crude oil production - year-on-year change (m b/d), Q1 2016-Q1 2021
Figure 20: Saudi oil price and production forecast, 2017?2022
Figure 21: Saudi GDP forecast to 2026
Figure 22: Saudi government revenue and expenditure projections, 2019?2023 (SRbn)
Figure 23: Saudi government debt projections, 2019?2023 (SRbn)
Figure 24: Saudi imports, exports and current account, 2019?2026
Figure 25: Saudi current account balance ($bn), 2019?2026
Figure 26: Total value of contract awards, 2011?2020 ($m)
Figure 27: Contract awards by sector, 2011?2020 ($m)
Figure 28: Contract awards by sector, 2011?2020 ($m)
Figure 29: Contract awards by sector, 2018?2020 ($m)
Figure 30: Unawarded projects market by status (%)
Figure 31: Projects market by sector* ($m)
Figure 32: Future transport projects by subsector* ($m)
Figure 33: Saudi Arabia contracts award forecast 2021-2023 ($m)
Figure 34: Top 20 clients by the value of contracts under execution ($bn)
Figure 35: Top 20 contractors by the value of contracts under execution ($bn)
Figure 36: Saudi Arabia PPP framework timeline
Figure 37: Key Sectors Identified for Private Sector Participation
Figure 38: NTP 2020 Major Objectives
Figure 39: Leading power developers by equity capacity, August 2018 (MW)
Figure 40: SWCC Privatisation Roadmap
Figure 41: Saudi Arabia upstream projects by award value ($m), 2011-2020
Figure 42: Saudi Arabia upstream project pipeline ($m) by stage
Figure 43: Saudi recoverable crude oil reserves, 2012-2019 (billion barrels)
Figure 44: Saudi recoverable gas reserves, 2012-2019 (tcf)
Figure 45: Saudi Arabia downstream projects by award value ($m), 2011-2020
Figure 46: Saudi Arabia downstream project pipeline ($m) by stage
Figure 47: Location of the neutral zone
Figure 48: Saudi Arabia crude oil exports by region, 2019 (%)
Figure 49: Saudi oil and gas fields
Figure 50: Saudi crude oil production, 2012-2019 (million b/d)
Figure 51: Mena unconventional gas potential
Figure 52: Saudi Arabia oil consumption, 2012-2019 (thousand barrels a day)
Figure 53: Oil and gas contract awards by sector, 2011-2020 (%)
Figure 54: Planned oil and gas projects (%)
Figure 55: Saudi Arabia's top oil and gas sector contractors
Figure 56: Top petrochemical producers in Saudi Arabia
Figure 57: Sabic subsidiaries
Figure 58: Petrochemical contract awards by sector, 2011-2020 (%)
Figure 59: Planned petrochemical projects by stage ($m)
Figure 60: Main geological structures
Figure 61: Maaden assets
Figure 62: Maaden assets, 2011-2020 (SR bn)
Figure 63: Maaden sales, 2011-2020 (SR bn)
Figure 64: Maaden sales by commodity (SR bn), 2016-2020
Figure 65: Railways supporting Ras Al-Khair minerals city
Figure 66: Maaden workforce, 2011-2019
Figure 67: Main non-oil exports in Saudi Arabia (% of total), 2017-2019
Figure 68: Challenges faced by Saudi Arabia Industries (%), 2018
Figure 69: Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Automotive value chain
Figure 70: Cement sales YTD 2019-2020 (thousand tonnes)
Figure 71: Saudi clinker production and inventory, December 2019 and 2020 (thousand tonnes)
Figure 72: Saudi Cement Sector Market Share, December 2020
Figure 73: Saudi Arabia, steel production and usage (thousand tonnes), 2011-2019
Figure 74: Saudi Arabia industrial market contract awards, 2011-2020 ($m)
Figure 75: Institutional structure of decision-making in the Saudi Arabia energy sector
Figure 76: Saudi Arabia's electricity industry structure, 2020
Figure 77: Saudi Arabia annual power consumption (GWh), 2015-2020
Figure 78: Saudi Arabia power consumption by sector (per cent), 2019
Figure 79: Saudi Arabia, projected demand of annual power consumption (GWh), 2021-2030
Figure 80: Power peak demand growth, 2010-2019 (%)
Figure 81: Power demand forecast, 2000?2030 (MW)
Figure 82: Saudi Arabia, cumulative installed capacity by energy source (MW), 2015-2020
Figure 83: Saudi Arabia, cumulative installed capacity by energy source (MW), 2021-2030
Figure 84: Saudi Arabia, annual power generation by energy source (GWh), 2015-2020
Figure 85: Saudi Arabia, annual power generation by energy source (GWh), 2021-2030
Figure 86: Saudi Arabia ownership of installed capacity (%), 2019
Figure 87: Available generating capacity by fuel, 2019 (%)
Figure 88: NREP 2030 Renewables Target
Figure 89: Renewable energy generation contract awards ($m), 2011?2020
Figure 90: Distribution of power generating units by years of service, 2019
Figure 91: Per capita consumption (kWh), 2009-2019
Figure 92: Transmission & Distribution contract awards, 2011?2020 ($m)
Figure 93: Increase in transmission capacity, 2014?2019 (MVA)
Figure 94: Saudi Arabia, urban water demand per capita (Litres/ capita/ day)
Figure 95: Saudi Arabia, water demand reduction levers
Figure 96: Saudi Arabia, national urban water supply mix, 2030 (million cm/d)
Figure 97: Saudi Arabia, 2030 target supply sources
Figure 98: Saudi Arabia, national urban water demand and ground and surface water production (million cm/d), 2020-2026
Figure 99: Saudi Arabia, existing and committed desalination water supply (million cm/d), 2020-2026
Figure 100: Saudi Arabia, desalination supply, demand and gap (million cm/d); 2020-2026
Figure 101: Saudi Arabia, four main supply groups
Figure 102: Saudi Arabia, drinking water consumption (million cm/d), 2007-2019
Figure 103: Saudi Arabia, drinking water consumption by city (cm/d), 2019
Figure 104: Saudi Arabia, under construction and planned desalination plants and pipelines
Figure 105: Saudi Arabia, future desalination strategy
Figure 106: Saudi Arabia desalinated water demand and supply (2020?2022)
Figure 107: Age of desalination plants, all licensees
Figure 108: Desalination plants and major transportation lines in Saudi Arabia
Figure 109: Wastewater collected for treatment and required capacity (million cm/d)
Figure 110: Total wastewater treatment capacity by 2030 (million cm/d)
Figure 111: TSE customer categories and uses
Figure 112: Demand for TSE in Riyadh, Jeddah, Madinah, Mecca and Greater Dammam, 2012?2030 (thousand cm/d)
Figure 113: Forecast of TSE usage in the kingdom's six major cities, 2011?2030 (cm/d)
Figure 114: Cumulative volume of water saved due to leak detection (cubic metres)
Figure 115: NWC capital expenditure requirements for five major cities/groups, 2013?2017 (SRm)
Figure 116: Projected investment in selected areas, 2016?2020 ($m)
Figure 118: Saudi Arabia construction contract awards, 2010-2020
Figure 119: Planned construction projects, by stage ($m)
Figure 120: Most active clients by contracts under execution ($bn)
Figure 121: Most active contractors by work underway ($bn)
Figure 122: Education projects by stage ($m)
Figure 123: Saudi Arabia tourism contract awards, 2011?2020
Figure 124: Unawarded tourism projects by status ($m)
Figure 125: Hospitality projects by status ($m)
Figure 126: Planned rail networks in Saudi Arabia to 2040
Figure 127: Riyadh Metro network
Figure 128: Mecca Metro
Figure 129: Jeddah transport masterplan
Figure 130: Principal airports in Saudi Arabia
Figure 131: Airport passenger numbers (millions), 2010-2020
Figure 132: International airport passengers (thousands), 2015-2018
Figure 133: Busiest airports, Saudi Arabia, 2019 and 2020
Figure 134: Aircraft movements at Saudi Arabia's international airports, 2015-2018
Figure 135: Domestic capacity share by the airline (% of seats), August 2018
Figure 136: International capacity share by the airline (% of seats), August 2018
Figure 137: Saudi Arabia ports
Figure 138: Annual cargo throughput at Saudi ports (million tonnes), 2015-2019
Figure 139: Key indicators of doing business in Saudi Arabia, 2020
Figure 140: Doing business in Saudi Arabia
Figure 141: FDI inflows and stock ($m), 2016?2020
Figure 142: Foreign investment projects statistics
Figure 143: Number of new foreign investment projects by sector and country (Q4 2020)
Figure 144: Foreign direct investment in stock, 2010 & 2019
Figure 145: Saudi imports and exports (SRm), 2015?2020