1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 10
1.1 Aims and objectives of the study 10
1.2 Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 11

2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 13
2.1 Why anti-fog coatings? 13
2.2 Advantages over traditional coatings 15
2.3 Market drivers and trends 16
2.4 End user market for anti-fog coatings 17
2.5 Global revenues for anti-fog coatings and films 2019-2033 18
2.6 Market challenges 20

3 OVERVIEW OF ANTI-FOG COATINGS 22
3.1 Properties 22
3.2 Production and synthesis methods 22
3.2.1 Film coatings techniques analysis 23
3.2.2 Superhydrophobic coatings on substrates 25
3.2.3 Electrospray and electrospinning 26
3.2.4 Chemical and electrochemical deposition 27
3.2.4.1 Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) 27
3.2.4.2 Physical vapor deposition (PVD) 28
3.2.4.3 Atomic layer deposition (ALD) 29
3.2.4.4 Aerosol coating 30
3.2.4.5 Layer-by-layer Self-assembly (LBL) 30
3.2.4.6 Sol-gel process 31
3.2.4.7 Etching 33
3.3 Methods for producing anti-fog coatings 34
3.4 Types of anti-fog coatings 37
3.4.1 Hydrophilic coatings 37
3.4.1.1 Superhydrophilic anti-fogging 38
3.4.2 Hydrophobic and superhydrophobic coatings and surfaces 39
3.4.2.1 Hydrophobic coatings 39
3.4.2.2 Superhydrophobic 40
3.4.3 Oleophobic coatings and surfaces 41
3.4.3.1 SLIPS 42
3.4.3.2 Applications 42
3.4.3.3 Hydrophilic/oleophobic anti-fogging 44
3.4.4 Zwitterionic polymers 44
3.4.5 Biomimetic anti-fogging materials 45
3.4.6 Cellulose nanocrystals 47
3.4.6.1 Synthesis 47
3.4.6.2 Properties 49
3.4.6.3 Anti-fog CNCs 50

4 MARKETS FOR ANTI-FOG COATINGS AND FILMS 52
4.1 Automotive 52
4.2 Solar panels 52
4.3 Healthcare and medical 53
4.4 Display devices and eyewear (optics) 54
4.5 Food packaging and agricultural films 55

5 ANTI-FOG COATINGS AND FILMS COMPANY PROFILES 57 (39 company profiles)

6 REFERENCES 96

TABLES
Table 1. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Examples. 11
Table 2. Types of anti-fog solutions. 15
Table 3. Market drivers and trends in anti-fog coatings. 16
Table 4. Applications of anti-fog coatings. 17
Table 5. Global revenues for anti-fog coatings and films, 2019-2033, millions USD, by market. 18
Table 6. Market and technical challenges for anti-fog coatings. 20
Table 7. Film coatings techniques. 23
Table 8. Techniques for constructing superhydrophobic coatings on substrates. 25
Table 9. Typical surfaces with superwettability used in anti-fogging. 34
Table 10. Contact angles of hydrophilic, super hydrophilic, hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. 39
Table 11. Disadvantages of commonly utilized superhydrophobic coating methods. 41
Table 12. Applications of oleophobic & omniphobic coatings. 43
Table 13. Types of biomimetic materials and properties. 45
Table 14. Synthesis methods for cellulose nanocrystals (CNC). 48
Table 15. CNC sources, size and yield. 49
Table 16. CNC properties. 49
Table 17. Mechanical properties of CNC and other reinforcement materials. 50
Table 18. Market overview of anti-fog coatings in automotive. 52
Table 19. Market overview of anti-fog coatings in solar panels. 52
Table 20. Market overview of anti-fog coatings in healthcare and medical. 53
Table 21. Market overview of anti-fog coatings in display devices and eyewear (optics). 54
Table 22. Market overview of anti-fog coatings in food packaging and agricultural films. 56
Table 23. Akzo Nobel Armofog products. 62
Table 24. Natoco anti-fog coating properties. 82
Table 25. Film properties of MODIPER H. 87

FIGURES
Figure 1. Anti-fog goggles. 14
Figure 2. Global revenues for anti-fog coatings, 2019-2033, by market. 19
Figure 3. Nanocoatings synthesis techniques. 23
Figure 4. Electrospray deposition. 27
Figure 5. CVD technique. 28
Figure 6. Schematic of ALD. 30
Figure 7. SEM images of different layers of TiO2 nanoparticles in steel surface. 31
Figure 8. The coating system is applied to the surface. The solvent evaporates. 32
Figure 9. A first organization takes place where the silicon-containing bonding component (blue dots in figure 2) bonds covalently with the surface and cross-links with neighbouring molecules to form a strong three-dimensional. 32
Figure 10. During the curing, the compounds organise themselves in a nanoscale monolayer. The fluorine-containing repellent component (red dots in figure 3) on top makes the glass hydro- phobic and oleophobic. 33
Figure 11. Hydrophilic effect. 38
Figure 12. Anti-fogging nanocoatings on protective eyewear. 38
Figure 13. A schematic of (a) water droplet on normal hydrophobic surface with contact angle greater than 90┬░ and (b) water droplet on a superhydrophobic surface with a contact angle > 150┬░. 39
Figure 14. Contact angle on superhydrophobic coated surface. 40
Figure 15. SLIPS repellent coatings. 42
Figure 16. Omniphobic coatings. 44
Figure 17. Superhydrophilic zwitterionic polymer brushes. 45
Figure 18. TEM image of cellulose nanocrystals. 47
Figure 19. CNC preparation. 47
Figure 20. Extracting CNC from trees. 49
Figure 21. FogKicker products. 51
Figure 22. Face shield with anti-fog coating. 53
Figure 23. Works TT 5 helmet with anti-fog coating. 54
Figure 24. Bostik anti-fog films. 64
Figure 25. NANOMYTE® SAF-100 coated polycarbonate resists fogging over hot water (left) and upon being removed from a freezer (right). 85
Figure 26. Schematic of MODOPER H series Anti-fog agents. 87